Some Information About The Situation Of Zika Virus Infection

THE NEWEST INFORMATION

(UPDATED ON 12/02/2016)

Rick Scott – the governor of Florida State has informed on Friday, Dec 2nd 2016 that the Zika disease situation in Little River belonging to Miami, Florida State has been controlled over, from red alert’s region down to yellow alert. Simultaneously, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) also said that the number of cases having Zika virus infection in Mexico and most of regions of the Americas has been dropped and there was no any country reporting about new case of Zika virus infection.

However, CNN Channel informed that on last Monday, the medical officers of state and federal recorded that Texas is the second state of American confirming a new case of Zika virus infection due to mosquito bites. That’s a woman at Brownville, the border area abutting Mexico but she said that she has never travelled to the areas having Zika virus infection. According to medical experts, it is particularly worrisome, but not surprising. As same as Florida, the South of Texas is the place where has Aedes aegypti mosquitos conveying Zika virus. It is also a place having many travelers; those came and went away from the countries having Zika virus epidemic disease such as Mexico, Colombia and Panama.  The authorities of Texas also informed that there are no additional cases having risks of Zika virus infection here at the moment, however they are still enhancing contingency plans to against the spread of this serious virus.

U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said they are associating with national officials and local authorities to enhance their efforts monitoring the disease situation as well as warning the locals, especially pregnant women implement the preventive methods to avoid being mosquito bites. They suggested locals to use insect repellents that has registered with Environmental Protection Agency, contained one of the following ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, Lemon eucalyptus oil, para-menthane-diol or 2-undecanone. It is recommended to wear long shirts and pants, cover up the windows or main door, use airconditioner if available, and discard standing water inside the widgets or outside areas where mosquito can lay their eggs.

According to medical experts, now in USA there are 238 cases having Zika virus infection concentrated in Florida State. This number may increase but not spread out widely

According to statistics until Nov 30, 2016 there are over 37.7100 cases having Zika virus infection in USA and adjacent areas. So, what is Zika virus? How does it affect to human? How to prevent and treat? After having full information from different and reliable sources, we would like to introduce to readers the useful information as followings:

What is Zika virus?

Zika virus (ZIKV) was first identified in 1947 in a same name forest in Uganda by scientist Julius Lutwama.

Zika is a RNA virus (arbovirus), belong to Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted mainly by the bite of Aedes being infected Zika virus. Zika virus does not cause death but it causes harmful effects to pregnant women and fetus. The pregnant mother is infected with Zika virus often gives birth to a child having microcephaly (head is smaller than expected) and the abnormal developed brain. Aedes Aegypti mosquito is considered as the culprit spreading Zika virus.

Aedes Aegypti is a very small mosquito type without venom. It can bite humans in daytime without causing pain. The danger is Aedes Aegypti contains Zika virus that has ability to recognize the smell of human rapidly and like sucking human blood.  Infected Zika mosquitos often live under the floor, furniture, dark areas, especially in small puddles in bonsai pots and houseplants. According to Joe Conlon- a spokeman of American Mosquito Control Association, Aedes mosquito may proliferate with a very small amount of water, for example they can lay their eggs in soda drink bottle caps or fast food bags that people throw away.

Zika virus is related to dengue fever, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and West Nile virus. Zika virus has appeared in the tropical areas of Asia and Africa since 1950. This is a new virus and it is a major cause of epidemic in 2007, in Yap Island, Micronesia state, and then spread to the west passing Pacific Ocean, and come to Polynesia belongs to French, then continue spread to Easter Island. Until 2015, it comes over Central America, Caribbean area and South America – where Zika fever reachs pandemic level. The first cases were found in Brazil.

How dangerous is Zika virus to humans?

zika

Provided by: https://en.wikipedia.org/

People with Zika virus infection will have some symptoms such as mild fever, headache, muscle aches, joint pain, rashes, conjunctivitis (red eyes) from the second day to the 7th day after being bitten by mosquitos. According to the statistics of World Health Organization (WHO), there is only one person in 4 people with Zika virus infection having symptoms as mentioned. There is a very small ratio of people with Zika virus infection progressing to severe symptoms. Having Zika virus infection, patients can produce antibody to protect the body throughout their life, so there would be no symptom of the disease for Zika virus infection for the later times.

zika-microcephaly-comparison

Provided by: https://commons.wikimedia.org/

However, the rise in the spread of Zika virus in Brazil was accompanied by ae rise of babies born with microcephaly (very small head). In addition, in some countries including Brazil, reported a significant increase in Guillain-Barre syndrome – a serious mental disorder syndrome may cause paralysis and death. Based on the overall evaluation until 11/30/2016, WHO has concluded that Zika virus infection in pregnancy is a major cause of congenital brain abnormalities including microcephaly.  Zika virus is continuing spread in terms of geography to areas where having mosquitos and these can spread viruses. Therefore, WHO has announced Zika virus infection had been documented worldwide. This infection is related to thousands of babies are born with less developed brains.

How does Zika virus transmit to humans?

Zika virus is mainly transmitted to humans through the bite of Aedes with disease infection, in which can also transmit chikungunya, dengue and yellow fever.

Zika virus also can be transmitted to humans through sexual intercourse and can be found in the semen, blood, urine, amniotic fluid, saliva as well as the body fluids found in the brain and spinal cord.

Zika virus transmits from mother to baby during pregnancy.

Zika virus transmits through the blood transfution or being exposed in the laboratory or treatment facilities.

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